Chain survey is the simplest method of surveying. In this survey only measurements are taken in the field, and the rest work, such as plotting calculation etc. are done in the office.This is most suitable adapted to small plane areas with very few details. If carefully done, it gives quite accurate results. The necessary requirements for field work are chain, tape, ranging rod,arrows and some time cross staff.
Determines magnetic directions there are many kinds, including plane,vernier, solar, telescopic, box, trough, wet, dry, mariners, prismatic, pocket,etc.
A survey drafting board for map-making with an alidade.
The dumpy level is widely used for levelling works. For small and rough levelling works, the hand levels and farm levels are used. The dumpy level is very sturdy, compact and stable equipment.
This instrument is used for measuring the horizontal and vertical angles .
A total station is an electronic/optical instrument used in modern surveying. The total station is an electronic theodolite(transit) integrated with an electronic distance meter(EDM) to read slope distances from the instrument to a particular point.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING LAB
CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST :
The California bearing ratio test is penetration test meant for the evaluation of sub grade strength of roads and pavements. The results obtained by these tests are used with the empirical curves to determine the thickness of pavement and its component layers. This is the most widely used method for the design of flexible pavement
DIRECT SHEAR TEST
: In many engineering problems such as design of foundation, retaining walls, slab bridges, pipes, sheet piling, the value of the angle of internal friction and cohesion of the soil involved are required for the design. Direct shear test is used to predict these parameters quickly. . cost:Rs 55,000/-
HOD AIR OVEN
: The soil samples or any other similar samples can be placed at various degrees of temperaturecost:Rs 59,335/-
SAND REPLACEMENT TEST
: The in situ density of natural soil is needed for the determination of bearing capacity of soils, for the purpose of stability analysis of slopes, for the determination of pressures on underlying strata for the calculation of settlement and the design of underground structures.
VANE SHEAR TEST : The structural strength of soil is basically a problem of shear strength.
Vane shear test is a useful method of measuring the shear strength of clay.
It is a cheaper and quicker method. The test can also be conducted in the laboratory.
The laboratory vane shear test for the measurement of shear strength of cohesive soils is useful for soils of low shear strength (less than 0.3 kg/cm2) for which triaxial or unconfined tests cannot be performed.
The test gives the undrained strength of the soil.
The undisturbed and remoulded strength obtained are useful for evaluating the sensitivity of soil.
SIEVE SHAKER : It is used to the sieve any type of soil sample.
PERMEABILITY TEST : To determine the coefficient of permeability of a low permeable soils, this test have been used
HYDROMETER : To determine the depth at which the specific gravity is measured, Hydrometer is used